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America's Activism Periods,

From 1611 to 2007.

A Cycle Study.


Copy Right 2015

Table of Contents and Introduction.

A ‘Road Map’ Description of the Book.

Section I. The 41.6 Year Time Fractual Period: 1611 to 1702.

Section II. The 20.8 Year Time Fractual Period: 1702 to 1848.

Section III. The 10.4 and 5.20 Year Time Fractuals: to 1972.

Section IV. The 3 Year Time Fractual Period: to 2007/8.

Section V. The Airline Hijacking Cycle: 1945 to 2003.

C. Bibliography.


Activist Acts and Social Movements have changed our history and that of the world since records began to be kept. The shocking assassinations, overthrows, arsons, bomb blasts, often accomplished by a few people or even a lone individual, are part of the ‘Human Scene,’ however horrible. But the frequency of such acts and events does fluctuate in regular ebbs and flows, in cycles, or more correctly, in cycles that have changed over time to accelerate ‘harmonically,’ becoming what I have termed as ‘Time Fractuals.’

This Cycle Study and History Analysis by me, is the first and only ‘Time Fractuals’ study of America’s history of Activism periods. The regular cyclical ebbs and flows in the history of these events are very discernable, and I cycle chart them for the reader to see and to use themselves. The consistent acceleration over the last 400 years is also shown and documented in this book. As a cycle study and a reference and history source, this work can be useful to researchers, students, and the general public. The subject matter is the occurrences and their cyclical frequency changes of violence on innocent victims by activists and terrorists.

To this end, I have discovered what I term Time Fractuals™ in our history. They not only explain regular fluctuations in the frequency of terrorist and activist events in America’s, but are project able into the future.’ To discern and to describe the Time Fractuals™ I use the 'event dates' as Data. Cycles, or what I have defined as ‘TimeFractuals,’ are not only naturally occurring in human activities, but over time they change in length; usually but not always accelerating. I term this ‘fractualing’ because the length changes are either accelerating or slowing in even divisions or parts of the previous cycle length, while retaining their original timings. The changes are ‘harmonic,’ not chaotic or random.

The format of the presentation of the Time Fractuals now needs some explanation, too. The history dates and events are actually used as the data. The event is briefly described and of course dated, all from conventional history sources. The frequency of the dated events is what describes the ebb and flow or the cycle occurrence in the activity.

It is ‘pictured’ by my employment of a simple graphic tool which I refer to as the ‘cycle chart’. It is an up line and an equal down line in the open triangle form, with the base separation the time that the cycle ebb and flow entails. The period of continuing terrorist activity is the rising half of the open triangle, verses the period of no terrorist and activist activity being timed by the descending half of the open triangle.

That is the simple but significant truth of all of this; that regular periods of terrorist and activist activity as proven by the dates, are followed by definite shorter periods where there is virtually NO terrorist and activist activity, as proven by the dates. These LULL periods as I term them on the ‘cycle charts’, are very real and discernable.

The activity period and the lull period, is one cycle chart; described by one open triangle graphic presentation with dated *s described in the text on the facing page, which includes the history facts of the dated event. I believe this is really scientific analysis of human behavior. As a methodology, I use the time fractuals method to describe America’s entire 400 years War and Peace periods history, and the stock market and economic fluctuations, and more. Subsequent study publications will follow.

As mentioned earlier, an important aspect of TimeFractuals activity is the acceleration that has been happening in the last two centuries. I refer to it as the 'fractualing effect,’ a lengthening or shortening of the cycle lengths over time, but in harmonics of themselves.

While every effort has been made to include important events in this history study, it requires that I use the conventional events that are well documented as to when they happened. No effort is made to explain causes or to make much of a point, except that cycles which change harmonically help explain the way we are and what we do when we do it, and allows some ability to predict possible trend turning times.

When I began my ‘journey’ of four decades of cycles and history studies in the 1960s, I soon discerned what was, an obvious intermediate term stock market cycle of 4.25 years dominating the occurrences of the stock price highs and lows. Yet, I saw clearly that in the 1800s the stock market cycle was just about three and a third years in length.

Tops and bottoms in the stock market were that predictable then, as they were in the 1900s into the 1990s. But for me, that was the problem, that the stock market cycle was one length in the 1800s and then another slower and longer one in length in the 1900s. Finally in the 1990a I saw that the cycles changed , the 3 and a fraction year cycle was a fourth part of three times the 4.33 year cycle, and the two cycle lengths shared the same timing. Cycles change harmonically and are time fractuals. Cycles don't exist!

By 1970, while doing my post graduates studies in Boston, MA, I became a member and then a contributor to the Foundation for the Study of Cycles of Pittsburg, PA, founded and run by a wonderful gentleman, Mr. Ned Dewey. His books are still the standard in the Cycles field. But I was already a rebel, a nonbeliever in cycles as the final answer to the data history. I saw that they change.

Usually, but not always, they got faster; but sometimes they got slower-longer in spans.

In the 1990s I returned in earnest to my Cycles Studies with an aim to publishing. I by then had accepted that cycles change, and set out to find them as 'changing cycles': i.e., 'time fractuals,’ which

change in even fractions or parts of their original time length.

With the advent of the 09-11 disaster, I was drawn to do this Social Activism Cycles Study, and I present it to the reader and student, as a contribution to the general increase in knowledge about our selves and about TimeFractuals studies.

The purpose of this book is to show the mood cycles in the human activity of terrorism over a four century period of time, using enough history dates as data to prove the validity of these cycles, not with standing that they have ‘accelerated’ from a 41.6 year cycle to a 20.8 year cycle in the 1702 to 1848 period, and to 10.4 and 5.2 year cycles in the 1848 to 1972 year period, to an even faster paced cycle since the1970s.

In general, I think Cycle Studies of history, forms a third format of history, the other two being 'narrative' history and linear or chronological history.

The Book’s ‘ROAD MAP’.

From 1611 to 1702, the history data employed in this TimeFractual analysis is primarily English history. The time period of 1599 to 1702 encompasses 103 years, or almost exactly two and one half occurrences of the Primary 41.6 year TimeFractual. In fact, it ends by 1702 with the abrupt ‘fractualing’ of the 41.6 Year Primary, to its half part of a TimeFractual of 20.8 years.

Does the data indicate a continuation of the Primary 41.6 Year TimeFractual further back in time than 1599? Yes, it absolutely does. But, I expect the reader is more interested in moving close to the present times as soon as possible than in going any deeper into the past than 1599.

The transition to the 20.8 year TimeFractual post-1700 area was a harmonic transition. What do I mean by that? The trough timing for the 20.8 Year TimeFractual, with lows of activity in the 1700 time area and again in 1721, 1742, and 1765, are just as if the 41.8 year TimeFractual was intact in its timing but bisected in half of its length between lows. The transition is said to be harmonic. It is not, for instance, a haphazard frequency change, but in this case the half part of the previous (41.6 year) length. And the timing of the highs and lows of the prior 41.6 Year TimeFractual is retained.

Another seamless transition of another kind entirely occurs in the 1765 time area in this study. It is the change from use of English history as data to American history as data. Again, a harmonic change, as the timing is retained. Indeed, there is no change in the TimeFractual timings between these two separate histories, peoples and land masses. the timing of the ebbs and flows of activism-terrorism between the two histories is continuous, as one. TimeFractuals are global in scope.

After about 146 years of the regular continuation and occurrence of the 20.8 Year Activism-Terrorism TimeFractuals, another seamless change occurs when in 1848 the TimeFractuals accelerate again, fractualing to 10.4 and 5.2 year lengths. At that place in this study, I introduce simple schematics to assist the reader in discerning the complex configuration of the 10.4 and the 5.2 Year TimeFractuals as they act in concert.

The 10.4 and 5.2 Year complex of TimeFractuals extends from 1848 to the 1971-2 time period. Post 1972 the TimeFractuals speed up again or fractualize even more to a three year length. The 14th Part of 41.6 years really is about the time it takes terrorist groups to ‘reload’ financially and emotionally as individuals. A deadly pace for civilization is played out in its worst scenario in the Israel-Palestine Terrorist War.

In the area of American and world airplane hijackings, on the other hand, the 10.4 year TimeFractual has continued to this day, from the post World War II era. Why it remains at the slower pace of the pre-1972 time period, I don’t know. Perhaps hijackings require a particularly focused or incensed person, as it envelopes both the terrorist and the victims in the attacked plane, not being at all a simple hit and run activity such as a bombing may be.

A remarkable aspect of air line hijacking activity emerges clearly in the hijackings data. That activity plummeted when there was a major terrorist event happens. Examples of this are the Cuban Missile Crisis of the early 1960s, the subsequent Kennedy Assassination on 11-22-1963, and recently the 09-11 events. For instance, post 09-11-2001 and 11-22-2001 to mid 2004, the level of terrorist activities in America and abroad declined! Certainly air port security and more, but also as shall be seen there was a Time Fractual (cycle) crest in the fall of 2001, and the tendency for a drop in hijacking incidence just after a very major terrorist event.


Chapter I.

The 41.6 Years Primary Time Fractual 1611 to 1702.

# 6 1611 - James 1st Dissolves British Parliament, temporarily quelling unrest and


#5 1609 - The King James Bible is at once a great step forward for Christianity in general, but is a sign of the times, of religions fervors matched by intolerance. In the next decade, the Pilgrims will leave for Massachusetts Bay Colony.

#4 1607 - The Flight of the Earls of Ireland to Spain, following a failed insurrection


against James 1

occurs in this troubled time.

#3 1605 - The Gun Powder Plot, to blow up British Parliament, is apprehended. The conspirators are persued.

#2 1603 - James 1st has Sir Walter Raleigh arrested and charged with being a part of the ‘Main Plot’ to overthrow him. Sir Raleigh is sent to the Tower in London.


#1 1599 to 1601 - The Earl of Essex Revolt against Queen Elizabeth 1

, of the Tudor

Dynasty of England. Years of intrigues, assassinations, and armed conflicts occur.


6) 1611*

5) 1609* *

4) 1607* *

3) 1605* *

2) 1603* *


1) 1599 to 1601* *

1587* *1629

41.6 YEARS

# 6 By 1652, all terrorist activities in the British Isles comes to an end, under the dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell.

#5 1650 - Under the dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell, who virtually destroys Ireland and the Irish as a people, England declares itself a Commonwealth.

#4 1642 - Stress and terrorism and intrigues erupt into the English Civil War that equals any in absolute violence and terrorism.

#3 1641 - Religious conflicts and terrorism erupt into the first and second Bishops Wars of Scotland and the Protestant - Catholic wars of Ireland. Poisonings and stabbings occur regularly.

#2 1635 - The Civil War and terrorisms among the German Principalities becomes the 30 Years War between Sweden and France.

#1 1629 - Charles 1st dissolves Parliament until 1640 in an effort to stop renewed unrest.


6) 1652*

5) 1650* *

4) 1642* *


3) 1641* *

2) 1635* *

1) 1629* *

1629* *1671

41.6 YEARS

#10 1688 to1693 - Civil War between William 3rd and James 2nd, 1690 - The Battle of Boyne in Ireland occurs, James 2nd and the Catholics defeated.

#9 1688 - Fearing the Freedoms for the English peoples that James 2nd is striving for, 7 English Lords pull off a Coup and invite William and Mary of Orange to replace James 2nd as King of England. Also known as the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

#8 1686 - Roman Catholics readmitted to English army under King James. In 1687

James the 2nd issues Declaration of Indulgence for Liberty of Conscience.

#7 1685 - James the 2nd forms the Federation of New England in order to remodel the British colonies in North America post their rebellions of the early 1680s.

#6 1684 - Court at Chancery in England annuls Charter of Massachusetts as this early Revolution among the Colonies erupts into terrorist acts against the Crown.

#5 1683 - The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles the 2nd is discovered. A secret order, the Masons, is found to be both anti-Catholic and antimonarchy!

#4 1678 - The Popish Plot in England is uncovered. Leading Roman Catholics are taken to trial and often executed, despite minimum proof of a Plot! The level of learning and innovation in England begins a long decline.

#3 1673 - The Declaration of the People of Virginia gains support for rebellion against authority amongst all the American British Colonies there. Colonists argue that “Colonists have the same rights as Englishmen”. Terrorism runs rampant!

#2 1673 - As Genocide continues unabated in secrecy against people of auburn hair, previously the Ruling and Academia Tudor Dynasty elite, the Test Act is passed, excluding Catholics from office in England.

#1 1672 - The Declaration of Indulgence is issued by Charles the 2nd of England, but withdrawn in 1673, as unrest and terrorism returns in England.


10) 1688 to 1693*

9) 1688* *

8) 1686* *

7) 1685* *

6) 1684* *

5) 1683* *

4) 1678* *

3) 1673* *


2) 1673* *

1) 1672* *

1671* *1703

41.6 YEARS

Chapter 11.

The 20.8 Years Time Fractual, 1702 to 1848.

#8 1715 - The First Parliament of George the 1st opens, the Jacobites (Terrorists?!) are defeated in Scotland by the Earl of Marlborough. Terrorism is again arrested as the activism Time Fractual has again crested.


#7 1714 - King George the 1

(Hanover) lands in England, with the once dismissed

Marlborough at his side, and reunites England under the House of Hanover.

#6 1709 - The English general Marlborough, is nicknamed “The Butcher” for his atrocities against the French in Europe.

#5 1708 - Attempt by James Edward to gain the Crown is a failure.

#4 1707 - Great Britain formed by union of England and Scotland culminating decades of intrigues and wars and terrorism on both sides.

#3 1706 - French and Spanish attack Charleston, South Carolina. England’s European enemies set against the Hanover House of England use Indian Tribes to attack and terrorize English colonists.

#2 1704 - French and Indians Terrorize New England Colonist, and Massacre the inhabitants of Deerfield, Conn.

#1 1703 - Delaware secedes from Pennsylvania and become a separate colony, after much intrigues.


8) 1715*

7) 1714* *

6) 1709* *

5) 1708* *

4) 1707* *

3) 1706* *


2) 1704* *

1) 1703* *

1703* *1727

41.6/20.8 YEARS

The Harmonic Transition or

Fractualing” of the

41.6 Year to the

20.8 Year Time Fractual

#9 1736 - The Porteous Riots in Edinburgh, Scotland are put down by the British, but many anti-English Scots start arriving in America…

#8 1733 - Molasses Act prohibits American trade with French Indians, promoting piracy. Early talks of secession from England.

#7 1733 - Latin language is abolished in English courts, as part of the elimination of

Catholic (Roman) traditions.

#6 1733 - Ben Franklin founds subscription library, and begins publication of Poor

Richards Almanac.

#5 1732 - James Oglethorpe receives charter to establish the Colony of Georgia and founds Savannah in 1733.

#4 1731 - England forbids factory workers from emigrating to “Freedom in


#3 1729 - North and South Carolina become Crown Colonies. Baltimore is founded.

Colony formation is used as a terrorist’s safety valve and a place for London prisoners to be sent.

#2 1729 - Benjamin and James Franklin publish The Pennsylvania Gazette until


#1 1727 - The Quakers demand abolition of slavery and set them selves apart in Pennsylvania as always against slavery. The Movement ultimately results in the American Civil War of the 1860s.


9) 1736*

8) 1733* *

7) 1733* *

6) 1733* *

5) 1732* *

4) 1731* *

3) 1729* *


2) 1729* *

1) 1727* *

1727* *1746

20.8 YEARS

#8 1756 - Great Britain declares war on France and attacks the French in the Ohio Valley after a decade of French - Indian terrorism. Colonial unrest is completely quelled by this War in America, yet the British note that the colonists avoid involvement in the War as much as possible. This forces the Crown to ‘shoulder’ the expenses and losses of this great and vast Colonial War, fought world wide.

In fact, the British Crown later expects to receive considerations by the American

Colonists after the War, which results in the American Revolution, instead.

#7 1756 - Six leading Quakers resign from the Pennsylvania assembly.

#6 1753 - Britain institutes the Land Tax, in England and Wales, among other measures. The residents subside into an acceptance of British oppression.

#5 1753 - British Marriage Act forbids marriages and wedding by unauthorized persons. This causes unrest among the people in the countryside.

#4 1752 - Adaptation of Gregorian calendar by Great Britain requiring the omission of 09/03 to 09/13 causes unrest.

#3 1747 to 1756 - The ‘Bonnie Prince Charles’ Era, of Scottish anti British terrorism and intrigues takes place now.

#2 1746 - Britain bans the wearing of tartans and other Scottish cultural traditions.

The legend of ‘Bonnie Prince Charles’ evolves as a focal point, from opposition to British rule.

#1 1746 - Charles Edward Stuart wins a victory at Falkirk but is defeated at Culloden and escapes to France.


8) 1756*

7) 1756* *

6) 1753* *

5) 1753* *

4) 1752* *


3) 1747 to 1756* *

2) 1746* *

1) 1746* *

1746* *1764

20.8 YEARS

#10 1775 - Paul Revere’s Ride occurs as British seek to take the Armories of

Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. The Revolutionary War Begins.

#9 1772 - Boston Assembly votes Secession. In 1774 - the British close the Port of Boston. Panic ensues in the Colonies. The 1774 Quebec Act to secure Canadian Loyalty to Britain is passed.

#8 1769 - Virginia Assembly dissolved after protesting England’s Colonial Treason

Trials, held in Westminster, England. In 1770 - The Boston Massacre occurs.

#7 1768 - Massachusetts Assembly dissolved for refusing to collect taxes or quarter

British Troops.

#6 1767 - New York’s Assembly suspended for refusing to support quartering of troops. Americans burn the Governor’s Mansion and assassinate thousands of English ‘Tories’.

#5 1767 - Protest meeting in Boston on new Import Tax efforts passed by now nearly bankrupt, post war Great Britain.

#4 1766 - Britain reacts in horror, as stories of (Scotch) Colonists stabbing to death and scalping (Tory) British Sympathizers. The Stamp Act is repealed.

#3 1766 - Americans hang tax collectors and tar and feather British agents (often leading to a painful death!). Terrorism explodes across the American colonies.

#2 1766 - British Parliament passes the Stamp (Tax) Act for the Colonies. Virginia challenges it. Stamp Act Congress meets with delegates from 9 Colonies.

#1 1764 - The British amend the Sugar Tax Act, as Colonists react violently to these British tax efforts with memories of the Molasses act and the knowledge that the British used these tactics to totally subdue first Ireland, then Scotland.


10) 1755*

9) 1772* *

8) 1769* *

7) 1768* *

6) 1767* *


5) 1767* *

4) 1766* *

3) 1766* *

2) 1766* *

1) 1764* *

1764* *1786

20.8 YEARS

#9 1799 - George Washington dies, quite possibly assassinated by three doctors to halt Washington from his denials that he was ever a practicing Free Mason, except for the three meetings he attended as a youth.

#8 1798 - The nation is beset by turmoil as George Washington sends letters to Church Ministers claiming he is not and was not a Mason, attending a lodge only three times as a youth. He demands that a ‘double’ impersonating him be stopped and to stop using his name for the furtherance of ‘Free’ Masonry.

#7 1794 - The Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania erupts. Terrorists head to the hills, and to this day retain a distrust of “Revenuers” and Federal Agents.

#6 1792 - Tremendous political debates and conflicts result in the emergence of America’s two party formation, the Republican under Thomas Jefferson and the Federalist under Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.

#5 1789 - The French Revolution begins. The Bastille is stormed, breeding riots in

Paris. A reign of terror and anarchy explodes across France and parts of Europe.

#4 1789 - First U.S Congress meets in New York, George Washington inaugurated as President.

#3 1788 - Ratification debates overshadow the rebellion and terrorism that started


with Shay’s Rebellion as New Hampshire becomes the 9


state to ratify the

#2 1787 - Emerging from great turmoil amongst States over trade and import duties, the Constitution is signed and the U. S. Federal Government is established. Pennsylvania is admitted to statehood.

#1 1786 - Shay’s Rebellion begins. Former soldiers in the Revolutionary War face foreclosures on their homes and seek financial aid. They are brutally attacked by Federal-State militia troops.


9) 1799*

8) 1798* *

7) 1794* *

6) 1792* *

5) 1789* *

4) 1789* *


3) 1788* *

2) 1787* *

1) 1786* *

1786* *1807

20.8 YEARS

#14 1820 - The Missouri Compromise ends the threat of Civil War and Secession by the slave states from the Union! It is part of a long history of intrigues and debates, movements, and terrorist acts against individuals and groups of people over the slave economic and social and legal system in America.

#13 1818 - Andrew Jackson leads troops into Florida. Chile revolts to gain independence.

#12 1816 - Argentina revolts to gain independence.

#11 1815 - Brazil becomes an independent empire. And, in 1815, the Southern slave states in America, wage terrorist campaigns-bullying the New England states.

#10 1814 - Despite substantial victories by American forces, the British burn down

Washington, D. C. and the White House, among other American cities.

#9 1812 to 1815 - War of 1812 wages across the American nation. New England efforts to secede from the Union are blocked by a threat of invasion by Virginia Militia.

#8 1812 - British Prime Minister assassinated in the House of Commons, America declares war on Great Britain in mid 1812.

#7 1811 - U.S. Congress is taken over by the ‘War Hawks’.

#6 1811 - Paraguay revolts against Spain. Terrorism rampant in Latin America!

#5 1810 - Revolutions erupt in Mexico and New Granada as Simon Bolivar emerges as the ‘George Washington’ of South America. An entire era of revolts and terrorism in Latin America unfolds, modeled greatly on America’s revolution and nation formation, and greatly enabled by Napoleon Bonaparte’s destruction of the Spanish and Portuguese European States. Revolutions and civil wars become the norm in Latin America, now and for years to come.

#4 1810 - Venezuela revolts and breaks away from Spain.

#3 1809 - Ecuador revolts to gain independence from Spain.

#2 1808 - Americans kill Indians for their lands.

#1 1807 - Napoleon terrorizes Europe, invading Portugal. The royal family there flees to Brazil. Rebellion erupts in Madrid and Napoleon takes Madrid as the royal family there flees Spain in 1808. Napoleon’s army occupies Rome.


14) 1820*

13) 1818* *

12) 1816* *

11) 1815* *

10) 1814* *

9) 1812 to 1815* *

8) 1812* *

7) 1811* *


6) 1811* *

5) 1810* *

4) 1810* *

3) 1809* *

2) 1808* *

1) 1807* *

1807* *1828

20.8 YEARS

#7 1837 - Revolutions in Lower and Upper Canada begin, lasting into 1839.

#6 1827 to 1839 - The Second Great Awakening occurs in America. A nationwide religious revival sweeps the young Republic.

#5 1837 - USS Caroline is set on fire and sunk by Canadian troops while transporting supplies to Canadian insurgents.

#4 1835 to 1836 - Revolution of Texas from Mexico. The famous Alamo Battle occurs.

#3 1830 to 1832 - European revolutions rock the capitals of Europe. The birth of the term Socialism occurs.

#2 1831 - Southampton Insurrection, a violent Virginia slave revolt occurs. It leads to the complete separation of black Americans from whites in the South as new fear starks the South, one of Slave Revolt!

#1 1828 - Tariff of Abominations is passed by U.S. Congress. The tariff curtails imports from Europe as isolationism has become entrenched in the country.


7) 1837*

6) 1827 to 1829* *

5) 1837* *

4) 1835 to 1836* *

3) 1830 to 1832* *


2) 1831* *